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Tag Archives: fluoride water filter

  • To Add Fluoride or Not to Add Fluoride

    Fluoridation of Drinking Water Continues to be a Contentious Issue

    In December 2016 many parts of San Jose, California, began adding fluoride to their drinking water supplies; a decision that was based on pressure from dentists, oral hygienists, and health officials within the Public Health Department of Santa Clara County. This change means that 230,000 residents of Santa Teresa, East San Jose and Almaden Valley now receive fluoridated drinking water, whether they wish to or not.

    This change occurred almost simultaneously with an Alabama Supreme Court ruling that allowed a Marshall County water utility to stop adding fluoride to drinking water over concerns that this additive is considered unhealthy. Water officials in the city of Arab ceased fluoridating its drinking water in August last year, after considering several scientific studies that highlighted the potential health threats that fluoride poses to those exposed to the additive in high doses. But shortly thereafter, the City Council ordered the water utility to continue adding fluoride to the city's drinking water supply — a move that has now been overturned by the supreme court ruling.

    baby drinking

    The Fluoride Action Network (FAN) has joined forces with a coalition of other medical, health and environmental groups that is urging the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ban water utilities from adding fluoride to drinking water supplied to the public. The coalition recently presented the EPA with a petition supported by more than 2,500 pages documenting scientific studies that show the health effects associated with drinking water fluoridation.

    Read 12 Reasons Why we Need to End Water Fluoridation

    According to the petition, "the amount of fluoride now regularly consumed by millions of Americans in fluoridated areas exceeds the doses repeatedly linked to IQ loss and other neurotoxic effects; with certain sub-populations standing at elevated risk of harm, including infants, young children, elderly populations and those with dietary deficiencies, renal impairment and/or genetic predispositions."

    As fluoride is has been scientifically acknowledged as a neurotoxin, the Fluoride Action Network is calling on the EPA to use the power afforded to it under the auspices of the Toxic Substances Control Act to ban the widespread use of a potentially harmful chemical that may pose a public health risk, especially to vulnerable members of society.

    The petition also goes on to say that as ingesting fluoride offers very little health benefit, "there is little justification in exposing the public to any risk of fluoride neurotoxicity, particularly via a source as essential to human sustenance as the public drinking water and the many processed foods and beverages made therefrom."

    Read WHO Fluoride Study Finds Water Fluoridation Unnecessary

    Fluoride has been shown to lower IQs of children exposed to in their drinking water, and is also considered a neurotoxin that can cause developmental problems, and other symptoms associated with neurotoxicity in humans. Fluoride in drinking water has also been linked to an increased risk of underactive thyroid, as well as urinary stone disease — an excruciatingly painful disease of the urinary tract.

    Concerned About Fluoride in your Drinking Water?

    The EPA has handed over the supporting scientific evidence to the National Research Council for their scientists to review. While they deliberate and ponder over decisions that ultimately affect your health and that of your loved ones, you can take action:

    1. Read the full Petition here.
    2. Read a summary of the Petition here.
    3. Add your name and endorsement in support of the citizen's petition, click here.
    4. Find out how to remove fluoride from your drinking water here.
  • What Is Aluminum Oxide?

    Aluminum Oxide is media that is used in the Berkey PF line of filters that remove fluoride from the water. This article provides some additional information and insight into what exactly aluminum oxide (or alumina) actually is.

    Aluminum Oxide is an inert compound of aluminum and oxygen and has been utilized in removing fluoride from water since 1936. It is a naturally occurring, non-toxic, and also known as corundum. Rubies and Sapphires are an example of gem quality corundum. The research scientist Corrin (1963a; 1963b) noted that aluminum reacts with water but is not able to do so when coated with inert aluminum oxide. Aluminum oxide is no more toxic or water-soluble than are rubies and sapphires.

    The fact that alumina is a compound of aluminum and oxygen should not be cause for concern as the properties of the compound differ greatly from the plain components. For example, pure aluminum reacts so readily with water that, according to the laws of chemistry, the aluminum shell of an airplane should actually dissolve in the rain.  However, when aluminum is placed in the atmosphere, a thin layer or aluminum oxide forms on the metal surface and acts like a protective, rust-resistant shield.  Aluminum oxide is the most stable form of aluminum known and it is not soluble in water. An analogy would be table salt (NaCl), a compound of sodium and chlorine, each by themselves a harmful substance, but together is something the human body needs. Likewise, both oxygen and hydrogen are highly flammable, yet a compound of both creates water (H20) which is used to extinguish fire. As such, Aluminum oxide was taken off the United States Environmental Protection Agency's chemicals lists in 1988.

    When water molecules come in contact with aluminum oxide, the aluminum and oxygen atoms on the surface move apart -- in some cases separating by more than 50 percent compared to their normal molecular positions. As a result, when the outer layer of aluminum oxide gets hydrated or wet, its structure changes just enough to become chemically inert and thus unable to react rapidly with additional water molecules or atmospheric oxygen. This change in molecular structure is why aluminum oxide metal resists corrosion.


    There are no known bodily functions that react with aluminum oxide, hence it has excellent biocompatibility. Aluminum oxide is a well-proven, biocompatible ceramic that has been used as a dental porcelain pigment for some 60 years and as a ceramic restoration substructure for 25 years. It has a variety of orthopedic uses such as hip and knee joints where it has demonstrated excellent biocompatibility over the long term.

    Aluminum oxide is utilized in sunscreen and cosmetics such as blush, lipstick, nail polish, and many types of sandpaper. It is a major component of the cue tip "chalk" used in billiards and the powder is used in some CD/DVD polishing and scratch-repair kits. Its polishing qualities are also why it is used as a base in toothpaste. Some other applications include use as a dosimeter for radiation protection for its optically stimulated luminescence properties, in addition to insulation for high-temperature furnaces are often manufactured from aluminum oxide.


    When laboratories test for metal contamination in water it is first necessary to break apart the oxidized metal ions from their oxygen component. Then an ion count is taken. This is the same for Aluminum oxide. The oxygen is separated from the pure aluminum molecules so that the aluminum ions can then be counted. It is for this reason that laboratory tests do not distinguish between aluminum oxide and pure aluminum in their test water. In other words, such tests generate a false positive by separating the aluminum from the oxygen and then reporting the amount of pure aluminum in the sample.

    However, as illustrated above, pure aluminum and aluminum oxide have vastly different characteristics. Pure aluminum is water-soluble, it is highly reactive and it is associated with negative health effects. By contrast aluminum oxide is not water-soluble, is inert, very stable, and not associated with any known negative health effects.

    Physical constants of inorganic compounds, in: David R. Lide (Ed.) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994.

  • Water Fluoridation: Why is the US still putting its Citizens at Risk?

    Water fluoridation continues to be a contentious health issue, with many disputing the notion that fluoride provides oral health benefits when it is ingested and suggesting that the opposite is true. In fact, due to health, ethical and legal implications, many countries around the world have taken steps to restrict the use of industrialized fluoride, and some have even gone so far as to ban its use completely.

    People who live in countries that still routinely add fluoride to their water have taken fight to the local levels.  Many of these folks have also taken steps to remove this additive from their drinking water with a fluoride water filter to protect their family.


    The website,, provides an insight into the health issues associated with water fluoridation and fluoride ingestion, and also provides a list of countries that have rejected or banned fluoride -- one of these countries is China, which has the highest population in the world. According to, only 5% of the world's population fluoridates its water, of which 50% of this statistic is made up of people living in the USA. also points out that 99% of countries in western Europe have rejected or banned water fluoridation, and many of these countries have ceased adding fluoride to their drinking water. Some cities in Canada and the US have started to follow suit, albeit rather slowly.

    The websites and both provide further information on the countries that have rejected or banned water fluoridation, which include: Austria (does not add 'toxic fluorides'), Belgium (believes people who wish to take fluoride can do so themselves), Denmark, Finland (suggests there are healthier options to prevent tooth cavities), Germany, Hungary, Israel, Japan (suggests calcium fluoride rather than sodium fluoride is beneficial, but still requires this to be regulated), Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands, as well as certain countries in Africa.

    According to information obtained from the Fluoride Action Network and, only a handful of European countries still fluoridate their drinking water -- these include: Ireland (73%), the United Kingdom (11%), Spain (11%), Serbia (3%) and Poland (1%).

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been associated with several health issues, including dental fluorosis, an increased risk of cancer, and a reduced IQ in children. Yet many water utilities across the USA still routinely add this contaminant to their drinking water supplies. This contaminated water is then piped to your home, where you and your family are unwittingly exposed to this potentially harmful pollutant. If your water utility routinely adds fluoride to your drinking water, we recommend that you take measures in your own hands to protect your family's health by investing in a good quality drinking water filter that is able to remove this potentially harmful contaminant. By doing so, you will be empowered to have the final say in what you and your family are exposed to via your drinking water.

    As many of our readers are already well aware, the Berkey water filter systems filter out a wide range of drinking water contaminants, with the ability to be fitted with additional PF-2 fluoride filters to remove the fluoride.

  • WHO Fluoride Study Shows Water Fluoridation is Unnecessary

    Fluoridation – the practice of adding fluoride to drinking water – is highly controversial. According to the Fluoride Action Network, the United States currently adds fluoride to over 70% of the drinking water it supplies its citizens, which results in more people in America drinking fluoridated water than the rest of the world combined. The majority of first world countries do not add fluoride to their drinking water, and yet the dental health of these populations is in no way compromised.

    New Fluoridation Data Released by WHO

    Data released by the World Health Organization (WHO) on tooth decay rates of 12 year old children in developed countries provide strong evidence that fluoridation is not necessary. These statistics clearly illustrate that many countries that do not fluoridate their water at all have less incidence of tooth decay than countries that add fluoride to more than 60% of their water supply. As there is no noticeable difference in the rate of tooth decay between developed countries that add fluoride to drinking water and those that don't, this begs the question: Is fluoridation necessary?

    World Health Organization Data: DMFT (Decayed, Missing & Filled Teeth) Status for 12 Year Olds By Country

    Denmark0.72008No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Germany0.72005No water fluoridation.67% salt fluoridation.
    England0.7200911% water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Netherlands*0.82002No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Switzerland**0.822009No water fluoridation.88% salt fluoridation.
    Belgium0.92009-10No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Sweden0.92008No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Australia1.02003-200480% water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    6% salt fluoridation.
    Ireland1.12002100% water fluoridation in study.No salt fluoridation.
    Italy1.12004No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    United States1.191999-200464% water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Finland1.22006No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    France1.22006No water fluoridation.65% salt fluoridation.
    Spain1.3200411% water fluoridation.10% salt fluoridation.
    Greece1.352005-06No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Iceland1.42005No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    New Zealand1.4200961% water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Japan1.72005No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    Norway1.72004No water fluoridation.No salt fluoridation.
    * The Hague | ** Zurich
    Tooth Decay data from:

    • World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Education, Training, and Research in Oral Health, Malmö University, Sweden. (accessed on June 10, 2012)

    Salt fluoridation data from:

    • Gotzfried F. (2006). Legal aspects of fluoride in salt, particularly within the EU. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 116:371-75.

    Is Fluoridate Necessary?

    Fluoride is added to toothpaste to prevent dental cavities. Consequently, children in developed countries already receive fluoride in toothpaste – in fact many children actually far exceed the recommended daily intake of fluoride from this source alone. Fluoride in drinking water only adds to the amount of fluoride they are consuming – mostly without their knowledge or their parent's consent. According to the Fluoride Action Network, there is enough fluoride in half a tube of children's toothpaste to kill a young child.  In 2009, US poison control centers received more than 24,500 calls related to swallowing fluoride toothpaste.The benefits that fluoride offers in preventing tooth decay is provided by topical contact with teeth and not from any nutritional benefits that it provides. Therefore it's logical to assume that one not need to swallow toothpaste or drink water containing fluoride to receive these benefits.

    Health Effects of Fluoride

    When fluoride is consumed in excess it has toxic effects on the body; it can cause dental fluorosis (tooth discoloration), skeletal fluorosis (bone disease) and has been linked to bone cancer in teenage boys. Patients with impaired kidney function are particularly at risk of skeletal fluorosis – fluoridated water was responsible for causing bone disease in patients undergoing dialysis treatment until kidney dialysis units routinely implemented water filtration systems to filter fluoride from the drinking water provided to their patients.

    Is Fluoridation Simply Unmonitored Mass Medication?

    Because fluoride is added to drinking water as a preventative health measure rather than to treat the water, it is considered a drug. This is of particular concern, as once fluoride is added to drinking water, it is not monitored. There is no control over who receives this medication, or the dose they receive, and no way to monitor the effects on human health. Young children, elderly citizens, and those with compromised health receive the same dose as healthy adults, and if they drink excessive amounts of water, this may be higher still.

    For those interested, Big Berkey Water Filters has add-on fluoride filters that go in the lower chamber of the system and will reduce fluoride in the water up to 99.75%. The problems associated with fluoridation of drinking water are covered in detail in the documentary film ''An Inconvenient Tooth'' released in September, 2012.

  • Fluoride in Drinking Water

    Columbia, MO has recently joined the extensive list of US cities that are questioning the practice of water fluoridation. Many citizens are opposed to the fact that the government is in effect medicating the public without their consent through the public water supply, often with little control of the dosage administered.

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly added to drinking water to promote dental health and prevent tooth decay. Hailed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of the top ten best public health achievements of the 20th century, the addition of fluoride to drinking water remains a somewhat controversial issue.

    Positive and Negative Heath Effects of Fluoride

    While small doses of fluoride offer dental health benefits, continued exposure to high doses of fluoride can have the opposite effect. Children under the age of eight can develop dental fluorosis – evident as white spots on teeth, or in severe cases, pitting of the tooth enamel; while adults that have been exposed to high levels of fluoride over a long period can suffer skeletal fluorosis – pain in the bones, calcification of joints, and in more severe cases, crippling, and a greater susceptibility to bone fractures as they get older.

    Recommended Levels of Fluoride

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has set the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for fluoride in drinking water at 4 mg/L, and a secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 2.0 mg/L as the standard for fluoride in drinking water. Levels above 4mg/L can have long-term adverse health effects, while levels above 2mg/L can have cosmetic effects, such as discoloration of teeth. The current guidelines as determined by the US Public Health Service for the optimal amount of fluoride in drinking water is set between 0.7-1.2mg/L. However, in an effort to balance the positive effects of fluoride for limiting tooth cavities, while also reducing the negative health effects of excessive exposure to fluoride, the US Department for Health and Human Services (HHS) has recently proposed that this be reduced to the lower end of this range – recommending that 0.7mg/L be set as the optimum.

    Health officials are concerned that Americans are being exposed to fluoride from multiple sources, including toothpaste, mouth wash, tooth whiteners, as well as drinking water. As water is not the only source of fluoride, the levels should be reduced accordingly.

    Removing Fluoride from Drinking Water

    If you are concerned about the levels of fluoride your family is being exposed to there are a number of options you can take to remove fluoride from your water. While boiling water can remove some pathogens, it will not remove fluoride, but will only increase the concentration of fluoride in water. You can remove fluoride with a home water filter that is capable of removing fluoride. While most standard drinking water filters are not able to remove fluoride, there are more specialized filters available that can.

    One of the more economical option is to invest in a good quality drinking water filter, such as a Berkey filter, that can be fitted with additional internal filter cartridges to remove unwanted fluoride. Berkey water filters accommodate at least two Black Berkey filter cartridges in the upper chamber that remove general water contaminants, including 99.99% removal of pathogens. To remove fluoride, arsenic, and residues of heavy metal ions, two or more additional PF-2 filters can be inserted into the lower chamber of the water filter to ensure that you have a supply of purified, healthy drinking water to provide your family.

  • New Study Links Water Fluoridation to Lower IQ in Children

    According to researchers from Harvard, a meta analysis of 27 epidemiological study reveals a significant inverse relationship between high levels fluoride levels in drinking water and IQ levels in children.

    Authors Choi et al. write, "Although fluoride may cause neurotoxicity in animal models and acute fluoride poisoning causes neurotoxicity in adults, very little is known of its effects on children's neurodevelopment."

    The study, published in the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences journal Environmental Health Perspectives, only looked at fluoride exposure from drinking water through statistical analysis of existing studies. "The results support the possibility of an adverse effect of high fluoride exposure on children's neurodevelopment." Authors recommend more research on fluoride exposure in children at individual-level doses and a variety of exposure methods, including prenatal.

    Choi's team writes, "Fluoride readily crosses the placenta. Fluoride exposure to the developing brain, which is much more susceptible to injury caused by toxicants than is the mature brain, may possibly lead to damage of a permanent nature."

    The New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc. President Paul Beeber responds: "It's senseless to keep subjecting our children to this ongoing fluoridation experiment to satisfy the political agenda of special-interest groups. Even if fluoridation reduced cavities, is tooth health more important than brain health? It's time to put politics aside and stop artificial fluoridation everywhere."

    Berkey PF-2 Water Filter Reduces Fluoride and Arsenic by 95%

    Worried about fluoride levels in your own water? Big Berkey Water Filters put you in control. Use a PF-2 Fluoride and Arsenic Filter hanging off your Black Berkey filter elements in your filtration system to remove up to 99.75% (under optimal conditions) of arsenic and fluoride no matter your drinking water source.

    Read More about Fluoride in These Big Berkey Water Filter Blog Posts:

    • The Dangers of Fluoride - The Great Debate
    • The Fluoride In Your Drinking Water is Industrial Waste

    • Fluoride Linked to Bone Cancer - Study Finds

    • Fluoride in Water and Fluoride Water Filters

    • To Fluoridate or Not: Berkey Water Filters Put You In Control

    • How To Prime PF-2 Fluoride and Arsenic Water Filters

  • To Fluoridate or Not: Berkey Water Filters Put You In Control

    For more than half a century, local governments in the United States have been adding fluoride to water supplies to prevent tooth decay. The U.S. Public Health Service reports: "over half of the U.S. population is served by drinking water that is fluoridated naturally or adjusted. Additionally, since the 1950's, fluorides have been incorporated into toothpaste, other dental products, and dietary supplements."

    From day 1, there have been dissenters. In 2006, a National Academy of Sciences report on fluoridated tap water and health brought what are often dismissed as fringe concerns directly into the mainstream. An expert government advisory panel recommended reducing the level of tap-water fluoridation to protect Americans from the harmful effects of too much fluoride.

    Fluoride in Tap Water and Dental Health

    In the 1940's, exposure to fluoride through food and drink was fairly low and access to fluoride-containing dental products was not common. Scientists and public health officials concerned with dental health noticed that regions with naturally highly fluoridated water also had fewer cases of dental caries. Subsequent fluoridation of drinking water supplies is often credited with 30-50% reductions in dental cavities.

    Over that period, there has also been a marked increase in dental fluorosis, discoloring and pitting of tooth enamel caused by excessive fluoride exposure while teeth are still developing. This has occurred both in areas of the country with fluoridated water and without, indicating that our overall fluoride exposure has gone up.

    Critics of fluoridation argue that the chemical's benefit is overblown. A review out in April 2011 by the West Virginia University Rural Health Research Center found that:

    urban U.S. children, with more exposure to fluoridated water and dental care, have just as many cavities as less fluoridation-exposed rural children.

    The researchers write: "For children's dental health measures, it was found that fluoridation rates were not significantly related to the measures of either caries or overall condition of the teeth for urban or rural areas."

    Overall reductions in tooth decay have been most dramatic among wealthy Americans and least among poor Americans, the ones that fluoridation is supposed to benefit.

    Too Much Fluoride and Health

    Excessive exposure to fluoride has implications beyond cosmetic appearance of teeth. Skeletal fluorisis is a bone and joint condition that increases bone density and leads to joint pain and reduced mobility. Full skeletal fluorosis is extremely rare in the United States, but mild forms of fluorosis may be confused with arthritis and chronic fluoride exposure has been linked to a wide variety of other ailments and conditions, including bone cancer.

    Fluoride Exposure Then & Now

    Tap water is the top source of fluoride exposure for most Americans, but all food and water has some fluoride. The geology of some part of the country results in more-than-average levels of fluoride. Fluoride is taken up in water-containing fruits and vegetables and accumulates in the bodies of animals and fish. Because of the sodium fluoride content of ocean water, seafood is a particularly good source of fluoride.

    Since tap water is used to process food, processed food usually contains as much or more fluoride than the water used in processing. If evaporation was used in processing, the resulting food stuffs may contain a great deal of fluoride. Instant tea, for example, when reconstituted with fluoridated tap water, contain much more fluoride than non-instant tea prepared with the same water.

    Fluoride-containing pesticides are another route of exposure and for years sufuryl fluoride was routinely applied to cocoa beans and dried fruit.

    Finally, fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthwashes are much more common and easily available than when tap-water fluoridation first began. Topical application is the most effective way to strengthen teeth with fluoride, but swallowing toothpaste exposes the brusher to much more fluoride than is healthy.

    Do Infants and Children Get Too Much Fluoride?

    In response to the National Academies' report, Environmental Working Group analyzed tap water fluoridation with respect to one particularly vulnerable group of Americans: babies who's diet was entirely comprised of infant formula prepared from powdered mix and tap-water.

    EWG's analysis shows that in 25 of the 28 largest cities in the U.S., fluoride levels in tap water alone will put 8 to 36 percent of all babies up to 6 months of age over the safe dose of fluoride on any given day. "These elevated early life exposures put children at risk for precisely the health problems that the NAS committee is concerned about," said Dr. Tim Kropp, toxicologist and senior scientist at EWG.

    While exposures of infants are particularly dramatic, all children drinking overly-fluoridated water may be at risk of excessive exposure because of their small size.

    U.S. Fluoridation Levels To Go Down?

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services proposed that the nation's water utilities sharply reduce the amount of fluoride in tap water and the Environmental Protection Agency initiated a review of the maximum allowable amount of fluoride in drinking water.

    Big Berkey Water Filters and Fluoride

    Your Berkey filters put you in charge of your household water quality, including your fluoride exposure.

    EWG recommends that all households with water supplies exceeding the new HHS recommendation of 0.7 mg of fluoride per liter filter their water. Only filtered, or otherwise non-fluoridated, water should be used to reconstitute infant formula.

    To find out if your town complies with the new recommendations, consult the CDC fluoride database or contact your water utility.


    Optional Fluoride Water Filter for Your Big Berkey

    Whether your water supply contains more than the recommended levels of fluoride or you want to eliminate it for any reason, the Big Berkey filter can be a great water filter for you.

    By adding a PF-2 flouride water filter to any of the Berkey Water filtration systems, you can reduce up to 99.75% of the fluoride in your drinking water. The PF-2 filter is designed to work in conjunction with the Black Berkey filters for optimal water quality along with fluoride reduction.

    Watch a Video on Fluoride and the Big Berkey Water Filter

  • Fluoride in Your Drinking Water - A Hard Look

    Mike Adams of highlights the hard facts about the addition of fluoride to your water and the health risks associated. As we've recommended for some time, those exposed should be using a fluoride water filter to remove this chemical from their drinking water. The Berkey PF-2 fluoride and arsenic filters attach to the black berkeys and hang in the lower chamber of any our multi-filter berkey water filter systems.

  • Professor Paul Connett Video On The Case Against Fluoride

    Professor Paul Connett gives a great interview on the dangers of adding of fluoride to the public's water supply, otherwise known as fluoridation. (4 part video below) He provides a history on the subject and reviews the serious health consequences associated with the practice that many still are unaware of.

    Here's an example from the interview:

    On the back of your toothpaste it reads "If more than recommended amounts of toothpaste are accidentally swallowed, then get medical help or call a poison control center immediately." Professor Connett converts how that warning would apply for fluoridated water;

    1. A pea sized amount of toothpaste contains approx 1/4 of a milligram of fluoride.
    2. US municipalities fluoridate at 1 PPM which converts to 1 milligram of fluoride per liter (33.8 Ounces).
    3. A 1/4 of a milligram of fluoride (the amount found in a pea sized amount of toothpaste) then equals about 1/4 liter of fluoridated water or 1 - 8 ounce glass of fluoridated water.

    I use approximately 2 pea-sized dabs of toothpaste on my toothbrush.  While I don't use fluoride toothpaste, if I did, that would be equivalent to about 16 ounces of fluoridated water.  So, does that mean if I consumed more than 16 ounces of water in one sitting I would need to call poison control if those same warning thresholds applied?

    As the US is one of the only countries left that still fluoridates, it's long overdue that policy makers re-examine and challenge water fluoridation in a fair scientific manner. Besides the video, and if you'd like to learn more, Professor Connett has also recently released a book titled The Case Against Fluoride: How Hazardous Waste Ended Up in Our Drinking Water and the Bad Science and Powerful Politics That Keep It There.

    For those who are new to the Berkey family, we do offer fluoride water filters that go in the lower chamber of any of our berkey water filter systems.

    If you have a young child or are expecting, please take the time to watch this video in it's entirety.  It's important to understand the heightened health risks newborns and infants face from fluoride exposure.


    Part 2

    Part 3

    Part 4

  • Fluoride Water Contamination in Northern Punjab, India

    By now, many of you are aware of the bodily risks that fluoride in your water presents. Fluoride toxicity harms bones, causes stiff joints, encourages skeletal abnormalities, raises the risk of cancer, results in genetic damage, can damage the thyroid, and hampers nervous system function. Given that you body does not excrete and rid itself of fluoride easily, continual exposure results in continual accumulation. Many states in the US have stopped the practice of fluoridation all together, and the question "to fluoridate or not to fluoridate" is becoming commonplace on state voting ballots.

    Fluoride Contamination in Punjab

    If you are not convinced of the detrimental affects of fluoride ingestion, the news video below on the Northern region of Punjab in India is a case study on it's toxic effects. In this region, contamination occurred through natural mediums and chemical fertilizers. While this news story does not speak to the fluoride concentration levels, a little research turned up a study by the Environmental Biology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of Zoology, S.G.N. Khalsa (PG) College, in Sri Ganganagar, India called Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Northern Rajasthan, India.  This study provided some valuable data and recommendations.

    At the time of this study's release in 2007, fluoride was recorded in the ranges of 4.78 and 1.01 ppm (parts per million) with an average fluoride concentration of 2.82 ppm for the Rajasthan region. To put this in perspective, the Environmental Protection Agency allows up to 1 ppm of fluoride in water for fluoridation purposes. This study states "Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at an alarming rate". In other words, concentrations at only 3-5 times higher that what the EPA currently allows in the US has resulted in alarming rates of dental and skeletal fluorosis with the study calling for "an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis."

    Do We Need Fluoride in our Drinking Water?

    To be clear, the news story speaks to boiling the water, however this only address the bacteria and parasites in the water.  Boiling will not remove or reduce fluoride levels in water.  In 2007 the ADA warned parents not to mix baby formula with tap water in the first 12 months of development so as to avoid fluoride intake. Are the risks of fluoride ingestion worth the claimed rewards? Many would argue that brushing multiple times per day, flossing, and visiting your local dentist regularly are more than sufficient in this day and age for teeth health.

    For those of you who are drinking fluoridated tap water, a berkey water filter equipped with a PF-2 fluoride filter will remove the fluoride to 99.75%. If you are unsure if your city/municipal water is fluoridated, simply call you local town water authority and they will be able to provide you this information.

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